His research primarily focuses on examining the governance of local communities in Europe across the medieval and early modern eras. How did governing structures allow rural communities to organise agriculture, conserve environmental resources, maintain law and order, and manage complex tenurial relations? To what extent did these structures create inequalities in access to political power and economic resources? And how were local governing regimes affected by the decline of direct lordship and the rise of the state? Through an interdisciplinary approach adopting quantitative and qualitative social-science methodologies, he answers these questions by analysing long-runs of manuscript sources to examine communities over the longue-durée.

Additionally, through collaborations with other scholars, he has developed interests in calculating long-run wage series for late medieval England, the resilience of communities to the crises of the early fourteenth century and the management of stray animals.

medieval depiction of two people in the process of threshing.
(Real) Wages in the Middle Ages

Research on the wages of agricultural workers in late medieval England

Ightam Mote, a medieval manor in the UK.
The Relationship between Lords and Tenants in the Middle Ages

Research on the function of lordship and the role of the tenants

A Manor Court Roll-
Local Authority and Manorial Officeholding in Late Medieval and Early Modern England

Research on the governance of local communities